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|Jasper International Academy’s specialists for the Investment & Securities sector are dynamic and skilled financial experts, with a wealth of experience and knowledge of the financial markets throughout the World.
Jasper International Academy Centre for Investment Securities and Economic Development
Jasper International Academy, Centre for Investment Securities and Economic Development operates globally and is one of the most widely respected professional organisations for those who work in the securities and investment industry.
We provide a range of services including sector specific qualifications and independent courses covering a whole range of subjects, ranging from Asset Management to Mergers and Acquisitions. You can explore our full range of courses and qualifications by clicking on the menu links at the top of the page.
- are fundamental to every economic activity in the world
- help create jobs
- lend and invest in community development projects
- help businesses grow, and
- provide consumer credit
The financial services sector is a significant contributor to international income and employment, with many millions directly employed in the financial services sector and several millions more in sector related services.
Financial services help with the making, investment and management of money for both people and organisations; for example, trading shares in the stock market or helping people save money for a rainy day.
Investment securities are marketable securities held by a bank in its portfolio of balance sheet assets. Investment securities, along with bank loans, are the principal source of bank earnings and generally serve two key functions – as a source of bank liquidity or funding to meet loan demand or customers’ needs for cash and as an additional source of earnings from the capital gains realized when portfolio securities are sold.
Commercial banks engage in the following activities:
- Processing payments via telegraphic transfer, EFTPOS, internet banking, or other
- Issuing bank drafts and bank cheques
- Accepting money on term deposit
- Lending money by overdraft, instalment loan, or other
- Providing documentary and steady guarantees, performance bonds, securities underwriting commitments and other forms of off-balance sheet exposure
- Cash management and treasury, and
- Merchant banking and private equity financing
Traditionally, large commercial banks also underwrite bonds, and make markets in currency, interest rates, and credit-related securities, but today large commercial banks usually have an investment bank arm that is involved in the aforementioned activities.
However, the banking crisis has affected banking activity. These banking crises include¬†bank runs, which affect single banks; banking panics, which affect many banks; and systemic banking crises, in which a country experiences a large number of defaults, and financial institutions and corporations face great difficulties repaying contracts. ¬†A banking crisis is marked by bank runs that lead to the demise of financial institutions, or by the demise of a financial institution that starts a string of similar demises.
On top of this, the¬†credit crunch¬†means there is a reduction in the general availability of¬†loans/credit or there is a sudden tightening of the conditions required to obtain a¬†loan¬†from the¬†banks. A credit crunch generally involves a reduction in the availability of¬†credit¬†independent of a rise in official¬†interest rates. In such situations, the relationship between credit availability and interest rates has implicitly changed, such that either credit becomes less available at any given official interest rate, or there ceases to be a clear relationship between interest rates and credit availability (i.e.¬†credit rationing¬†occurs). Often, a credit crunch is accompanied by a¬†flight to quality¬†by lenders and investors, as they seek less risky investments (often at the expense of small to medium size enterprises).
Organisations other than banks also deal with money. Trust funds and stockbrokers may buy and sell commodities like coffee or oil. They aim to buy at a low price and sell at a higher one, much like a coffee shop, except they don‚Äôt keep the product in a warehouse.
|The securities market¬†is a component of the wider¬†financial market¬†where¬†securities¬†can be bought and sold between subjects of the¬†economy, on the basis of demand and supply. Securities markets encompasses equity markets,¬†bond markets¬†and¬†derivatives markets where¬†prices can be determined.
Jasper International Academy – An Institute for Investment Securities and Economic Development
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